Reciprocal control of cell proliferation and migration
Dipartimento di Scienze Biochimiche, Università di Firenze, Viale Morgagni 50, 50134 Firenze, Italy
Cell Communication and Signaling 2010, 8:20 doi:10.1186/1478-811X-8-20Published: 7 September 2010
In adult tissue the quiescent state of a single cell is maintained by the steady state conditions of its own microenvironment for what concern both cell-cell as well as cell-ECM interaction and soluble factors concentration. Physiological or pathological conditions can alter this quiescent state through an imbalance of both soluble and insoluble factors that can trigger a cellular phenotypic response. The kind of cellular response depends by many factors but one of the most important is the concentration of soluble cytokines sensed by the target cell. In addition, due to the intrinsic plasticity of many cellular types, every single cell is able, in response to the same stimulus, to rapidly switch phenotype supporting minimal changes of microenviromental cytokines concentration. Wound healing is a typical condition in which epithelial, endothelial as well as mesenchymal cells are firstly subjected to activation of their motility in order to repopulate the damaged region and then they show a strong proliferative response in order to successfully complete the wound repair process. This schema constitute the leitmotif of many other physiological or pathological conditions such as development vasculogenesis/angiogenesis as well as cancer outgrowth and metastasis.
Our review focuses on the molecular mechanisms that control the starting and, eventually, the switching of cellular phenotypic outcome in response to changes in the symmetry of the extracellular environment.