Cartoon summary of different dystroglycan functions/complexes in myoblasts top or myofibres bottom referred to in the main text. Grey represent the cell membrane, red represents actin filaments, green myosin filaments, black Z-discs of striated muscle, dark blue ellipse is the nucleus and all pale blue represents different dystroglycan-containing structures according to the numbers. 1, normal costameric adhesions containing the dystrophin-dystroglycan glycoprotein complex. 2, mdx costameric adhesions with compromised connectivity to the underlying z-discs, containing plectin-dystroglycan and utrophin-dystroglycan complexes. 3. Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) containing; dystrophin-dystroglycan glycoprotein, utrophin-dystroglycan and rapsyn dystroglycan complexes 4. Myotendinous junction (MTJ) containing utrophin-dystroglycan complex. 5. Focal adhesions containing dystroglycan vinexin and possibly dystroglycan utrophin complexes. 6. Podosomes and invadopodia containing dystroglycan Tks5 and dystroglycan-Tks5-Src complexes. 7. Focal contacts containing dystroglycan vinexin complexes. 8. Filopodia containing dystroglycan-ezrin and dystroglycan-ezrin-Dbl complexes. 9. Nuclear dystroglycan in complex with other dystrophin associated proteins including Dp71. 10. Dystroglycan ERK complexes directing ERK signalling to nucleus or cytoplasm. * represents the possibility for regulation of the complex at this site by tyrosine phosphorylation.
Moore and Winder Cell Communication and Signaling 2010 8:3 doi:10.1186/1478-811X-8-3